The history of the popular postcard
- Who is not glad to get smart, coloured postcards from the vacation or to a personal event skilful from friends or relatives in the course of the year. News and congratulations is still dispatched, also in the age by SMS, MM and e-mail, in this way. However, with all joy at these coloured maps somebody thinks hardly really about how this brilliant idea took place generally and who the forefather was of this interesting picture post.
- The history of the first postcards whose investigation one calls, by the way, also Philokartie began as can be proved already a little bit more than 200 years ago. As the first manufacturer of these picturesquen pieces of art is valid the French copperplate engraver Desmainson who should have printed already in 1777 the first postcard. At first artists and lithographers were asked to the decorative creation of the postcards and postcards to let free run to her creative imagination. In the modern times the picture comes for these maps as a rule from photographers or graphic artists.
- The postcard was always, was suited at least in Punkto dispatch, the cheaper variation compared with the letter and very well to dispatch short text news. Because the first copies were unillustrated, they were also quite simply called “Correspondenzkarten”.
In 1840 the stamp was introduced in England and shortly after the first hand-painted postcard was sent by mail. This historical postcard was auctioned in 2002, by the way, for, would you believe, 31,750 £.
- The spreading of the postcards took place in stages distributed about the whole globe. The first map which was dispatched in the North German postal area was printed by the Oldenburg printer Schwartz with a small cannon picture and with a woodcut vignette provide only 15 days after introduction of the Correspondezkarte to Magdeburg were sent. The Serbian Petar Manojlovic on the 19th of May, 1871 from Vienna on the post brought the probably oldest Austro-Hungarian postcard to his cousin to Zombor. However, official postcard start in Austria was only the 1st of January, 1885.
- Now from the 1870s private were also freely sold, not by the post made, postcards and congratulations cards in different stores. This new definition called with lithographers, photographers and printers own business idea on the plan. The lithographer Ludwig Zrenner is valid here as the first mass producer of the new motive postcard. Also the development of the first greetings cards go on the creative account Zrenners. One of his first artistic works was provided with a drawing of the beer tents of the Munich October party and carried the label: „Greeting from the October party“.
- However, the big breakthrough of the postcard and postcard kept waiting in Germany still till 1896. From this time the coloured bearers of information and news bearers won thanks of the then new, modern chromolithography also beyond the German-speaking space in popularity. This procedure permitted pressure more brightly instead of only black / of white postcards. Of course there were even other reasons for the postcard boom at that time. Thus, for example, the growing tourism provided for a quickly growing inquiry. By the application the then very modern quick pressing the postcard now still in the price became exceedingly attractive and expanded with it to the mass production.
- Up to the outbreak of the First World War most postcards and postcards went almost exclusively with holiday greetings and congratulations for the birthday or at the turn of the year on the trip. At the beginning of the war one sent them, however, rather than an army postal service or used them in the national socialism for propaganda purposes. Many illustrations with military representations from the combatant’s states also come from this time.
- Today, in the age of the modern offset printing, the face has also changed according to the postcard. Meanwhile there are numerous different kinds of the picturesquen postcards. Today we know, for example, the topography maps them as the name lets assume, pictures of towns, places, sceneries or famous Baudwerken point. Motive maps against it are provided with pictures of plant motives and animal motives or art reproductions. Today also artist’s postcards are everyday and dedicated to the works of quite special artists.
The postcard has in the course of her long history practically all known printing methods run through. Thus there was till 1894 the plain map by means of lithography and in the following till about 1906 the multicolored Chromolithogtafie map. Between the beginning of the First World War and the middle of the 1960s the usual black / white photo was the design godfather of the postcard. With the introduction of the Colorfotos the postcard outfit also increased around the marvellous, coloured real photos. Since that time is, beside nostalgic motives, the photo postcard the racer at the map market. If one began in the 1920s here still with the collotype and silver bromide pressure, the modern, 4-coloured offset printing is today the technical measure of the things. Small editions are produced for cost reasons also often in the digital printing method.
- However, not only the production technologies have radically changed. Also the outfit par excellence has become more professional and more economic. Thus the modern postcard has as a rule a front as an address side and a picture back. This definition is valid for all kinds of postcards. To form the production of the coloured and artistic bearers of information so actually as possible, different printers and publishing companies have moved themselves especially to the postcard production. Besides, even everybody can create his own, quite personal maps, load his data via Internet on the server of on-line printers and print of course.
Thus are, beside all artistic variety, also quite private and unique postcards and postcards popular dispatch or collector objects and in it nothing will probably change also in future.